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Welcome to ISMAR 2013!

2013 ISMAR All Papers

Works In Progress Talks
Session : 
Works In Progress Talks
Date & Time : October 04 01:30 pm - 03:30 pm
Location : H2-02 Hetzel Building Main Lecture Theatre
Chair : 
Papers : 
Using a HHD with a HMD for Mobile AR Interaction
Authors:Rahul Budhiraja, Gun A. Lee, Mark Billinghurst
Abstract :
Mobile Augmented Reality (AR) applications are typically deployed either on head mounted displays (HMD) or handheld displays (HHD). This paper explores novel interaction techniques for a combined HHD-HMD hybrid system that builds on the strengths of each type of device. We use the HMD for viewing AR content and a touch screen HHD for interacting with the content. A prototype system was developed and a user study was conducted comparing four interaction techniques for selection tasks.
3D Interactions with a Passive Deformable Haptic Glove
Authors:Thuong N. Hoang, Ross Smith, Bruce H. Thomas
Abstract :
This paper explores enhancing mobile immersive augmented reality manipulations by providing a sense of computer-captured touch through the use of a passive deformable haptic glove that responds to objects in the physical environment. The glove extends our existing pinch glove design with a Digital Foam sensor that is placed under the palm of the hand. The novel glove input device supports a range of touch-activated, precise, direct manipulation modeling techniques with tactile feedback including hole cutting, trench cutting, and chamfer creation. A user evaluation study comparing an image plane approach to our passive deformable haptic glove showed that the glove improves a user’s task performance time, decreases error rate and erroneous hand movements, and reduces fatigue.
Ego- and Exocentric interaction for mobile AR conferencing
Authors:Timo Bleeker, Gun Lee, Mark Billinghurst
Abstract :
In this research we explore how a handheld display (HHD) can be used to provide input into an Augmented Reality (AR) conferencing application shown on a head mounted display (HMD). Although AR has successfully been used for many collaborative applications, there has been little research on using HHD and HMD together to enhance remote conferencing. This research investigates two different HHD interfaces and methods for supporting file sharing in an AR conferencing application. A formal evaluation compared four different conditions and found that an Exocentric view and using Visual cues for requesting content produced the best performance. The results were used to create a set of basic design guidelines for future research and application development.
CARMa: Content Augmented Reality Marker
Authors:Mohammed Hossny, Mustafa Hossny, Saeid Nahavandi
Abstract :
The current marker-based augmented reality (AR) rendering has demonstrated good results for online and special purpose applications such as computer-assisted tasks and virtual training. However, it fails to deliver a solution for off-line and generic applications such as augmented books, newspapers, and scientific articles. These applications feature too many markers that imposes a serious challenge on the recognition module. This paper proposes a novel design for augmented reality markers. The proposed marker design employs multi-view orthographic projection to derive dense depth maps and relies on splats rendering for visualisation. The main objective is to interpret the marker rather than recognising it. The proposed marker design stores six depth map projections of the 3D model along with their coloured textures in the marker.
Psychophysical Exploration of Stereoscopic Pseudo-Transparency
Authors:Mai Otsuki, Paul Milgram
Abstract :
We report a two part experiment related to perceiving (virtual) objects in the vicinity of (real) surfaces when using stereoscopic augmented reality displays. In particular, our goal was to explore the effect of various visual surface features on both perception of object location and perception of surface transparency. Surface features were manipulated using random dot patterns on a simulated real object surface, by manipulating dot size, dot density, and whether or not objects placed behind the surface were partially occluded by the surface.
Adapting Ray Tracing to Spatial Augmented Reality
Authors:Markus Broecker, Bruce Thomas, Ross Smith
Abstract :
Ray tracing is an elegant and intuitive image generation method. The introduction of GPU-accelerated ray tracing and corresponding software frameworks makes this rendering technique a viable option for Augmented Reality applications. Spatial Augmented Reality employs projectors to illuminate physical models and is used in fi elds that require photorealism, such as design and prototyping. Ray tracing can be used to great e ffect in this Augmented Reality environment to create scenes of high visual fidelity. However, the peculiarities of SAR systems require that core ray tracing algorithms be adapted to this new rendering environment. This paper highlights the problems involved in using ray tracing in a SAR environment and provides solutions to overcome these. In particular, the following issues are addressed: ray generation, hybrid rendering and view-dependent rendering.
Augmented Reality Image Generation with Virtualized Real Objects Using View-dependent Texture and Geometry
Authors:Yuta Nakashima, Yusuke Uno, Norihiko Kawai, Tomokazu Sato, Naokazu Yokoya
Abstract :
Augmented reality (AR) images with virtualized real objects can be used for various applications. However, such AR image generation requires hand-crafted 3D models of that objects, which are usually not available. This paper proposes a view-dependent texture (VDT)- and view-dependent geometry (VDG)-based method for generating high quality AR images, which uses 3D models automatically reconstructed from multiple images. Since the quality of reconstructed 3D models is usually insufficient, the proposed method inflates the objects in the depth map as VDG to repair chipped object boundaries and assigns a color to each pixel based on VDT to reproduce the detail of the objects. Background pixel exposure due to inflation is suppressed by the use of the foreground region extracted from the input images. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method can successfully reduce above visual artifacts.
View Management for Driver Assistance in an HMD
Authors:Felix Lauber, Andreas Butz
Abstract :
Head-mounted displays (HMDs) have the potential to overcome some of the technological limitations of currently existing automotive head-up displays (HUDs), such as the limited field of view and the restrictive boundaries of the windshield. However, in a formative study, we identified other, partially known problems with HMDs regarding content stability and occlusion. As a counter-measure we propose a novel layout mechanism for HMD visualization, which, on the one hand, benefits from the unique characteristics of HMDs and, on the other, combines the advantages of head-stabilized and cockpit-stabilized content. By subdividing the HMD’s field of view into different slots to which the content is dynamically assigned depending on the user’s head rotation, we ensure that the driver’s vision is effectively augmented in every possible direction.
SIXTH middleware for Sensor Web enabled AR Applications
Authors:Abraham G. Campbell, Levent Görgü, Barnard Kroon, Dominic Carr, David Lillis, Gregory M.P. O’Hare
Abstract :
We increasingly live in a world where sensors have become truly ubiquitous in nature. Many of these sensors are an integral part of devices such as smartphones, which contain sufficient sensors to allow for their use as Augmented Reality (AR) devices. This AR experience is limited by the precision and functionality of an individual device's sensors and the its capacity to process the sensor data into a useable form. This paper discuss the current work on a mobile version of the SIXTH middleware which allows for creation of Sensor Web enabled AR applications. This paper discusses current work on mobile SIXTH, which involves the creation of a sensor web between different Android and non-Android devices. This has led to several small demonstrators which are discussed in this work in progress paper. Future work on the project outlines the aims of the project to allow for the integration of additional devices so as to explore new abilities such as leveraging additional proprieties of those devices.
Motion Capturing Empowered Interaction with a Virtual Agent in an Augmented Reality Environment
Authors:Ionut Damian, Felix Kistler, Mohammad Obaid, René Bühling, Mark Billinghurst, Elisabeth André
Abstract :
We present an Augmented Reality (AR) system where we immerse the user's whole body in the virtual scene using a motion capturing (MoCap) suit. The goal is to allow for seamless interaction with the virtual content within the AR environment. We describe an evaluation study of a prototype application featuring an interactive scenario with a virtual agent. The scenario contains two conditions: in one, the agent has access to the full tracking data of the MoCap suit and therefore is aware of the exact actions of the user, while in the second condition, the agent does not get this information. We then report and discuss the differences we were able to detect regarding the users' perception of the interaction with the agent and give future research directions.
Blur with Depth: A Depth Cue Method Based on Blur Effect in Augmented Reality
Authors:Xueting Lin, Takefumi Ogawa
Abstract :
In this paper, a depth cue method based on blur effect in augmented reality is proposed. Different from previous approaches, the proposed method offers an algorithm which estimates the blur effect in the whole scene based on the spatial information in the real world and the intrinsic parameters of the camera. We implemented a prototype using the proposed method and conducted two user tests on how the users might perceive the blur effect rendered by different blurring methods. The test settings are introduced and the results are discussed. The test results show that our blur estimation method is acceptable for moving virtual objects. We also find that the users might prefer a stronger contrast of blur than the blur consistent to the background.
A Pilot Study for Augmented Reality Supported Procedure Guidance to Operate Payload Racks On-Board the International Space Station
Authors:Daniela Markov-Vetter, Oliver Staadt
Abstract :
We present our current state in developing and testing of Augmented Reality supported spaceflight procedures for intra-vehicular payload activities. Our vision is to support the ground team and the flight crew to author and operate easily AR guidelines without programming and AR knowledge. For visualization of the procedural instructions using an HMD, 3D registered visual aids are overlaid onto the payload model operated by additional voice control. Embedded informational resources (e.g., images and videos) are provided through a mobile tangible user interface. In a pilot study that was performed at the ESA European Astronaut Centre by application domain experts, we evaluated the performance, work-load and acceptance by comparing our AR system with the conventional method of displaying PDF documents of the procedure.
Comparing Pointing and Drawing for Remote Collaboration
Authors:Seungwon Kim, Gun Lee, Nobuchika SAKATA, Elina Vartiainen, Mark Billinghurst
Abstract :
In this research, we explore using pointing and drawing in a remote collaboration system. Our application allows a local user with a tablet to communicate with a remote expert on a desktop computer. We compared performance in four conditions: (1) Pointers on Still Image, (2) Pointers on Live Video, (3) Annotation on Still Image, and (4) Annotation on Live Video. We found that using drawing annotations would require fewer inputs on an expert side, and would require less cognitive load on the local worker side. In a follow-on study we compared the conditions (2) and (4) using a more complicated task. We found that pointing input requires good verbal communication to be effective and that drawing annotations need to be erased after completing each step of a task.
Region-based tracking using sequences of relevance measures
Authors:Sandy Martedi, Bruce Thomas, Hideo Saito
Abstract :
We present the preliminary results of our proposal: a region-based detection and tracking method of arbitrary shapes. The method is designed to be robust against orientation and scale changes and also occlusions. In this work, we study the effectiveness of sequence of shape descriptors for matching purpose. We detect and track surfaces by matching the sequences of descriptor so called relevance measures with their correspondences in the database. First, we extract stable shapes as the detection target using Maximally Stable Extreme Region (MSER) method. The keypoints on the stable shapes are then extracted by simplifying the outline of the stable regions. The relevance measures that are composed by three keypoints are then computed and the sequences of them are composed as descriptors. During runtime, the sequences of relevance measures are extracted from the captured image and are matched with those in the database. When a particular region is matched with one in the database, the orientation of the region is then estimated and virtual annotations can be superimposed. We apply this approach in an interactive task support system that helps users for creating paper craft objects.
Consider Your Clutter: Perception of Virtual Object Motion in AR
Authors:Vicente Ferrer, Yifan Yang, Alejandro Perdomo, John Quarles
Abstract :
Background motion and visual clutter are present in almost all augmented reality applications. However, there is minimal prior work that has investigated the effects that background motion and clutter (e.g., a busy city street) can have on the perception of virtual object motion in augmented reality. To investigate these issues, we conducted an experiment in which participants’ perceptions of changes in overlaid virtual object velocity were evaluated on a black background and a high clutter/motion background. Results offer insights into the impact that background clutter and motion has on perception in augmented reality.
Bare Hand Natural Interaction with Augmented Objects
Authors:Lucas Silva Figueiredo, Jorge Lindoso, Rafael Roberto, Veronica Teichrieb, Ronaldo Ferreira dos Anjos Filho, Edvar Vilar Neto, Manoela Silva
Abstract :
In this work in progress we address the problem of interacting with augmented objects. A bare hand tracking technique is developed, which allied to gesture recognition heuristics, enables interaction with augmented objects in an intuitive way. The tracking algorithm uses a flock of features approach that tracks both hands in real time. The interaction occurs by the execution of grasp and release gestures. Physics simulation and photorealistic rendering are added to the pipeline. This way, the tool provides more coherent feedback in order to make the virtual objects look and respond more likely real ones. The pipeline was tested through speci c tasks, designed to analyze its performance regarding the easiness of use, precision and response time.
Using a HHD with a HMD for Mobile AR Interaction
Authors:Rahul Budhiraja, Gun Lee, Mark Billinghurst
Abstract :
Mobile Augmented Reality (AR) applications are typically deployed either on head mounted displays (HMD) or handheld displays (HHD). This paper explores novel interaction techniques for a combined HHD-HMD hybrid system that builds on the strengths of each type of device. We use the HMD for viewing AR content and a touch screen HHD for interacting with the content. A prototype system was developed and a user study was conducted comparing four interaction techniques for selection tasks.
A Projected Augmented Reality System for Remote Collaboration
Authors:Matthew Tait, Tony Tsai, Nobuchika Sakata, Mark Billinghurst, Elina Vartiainen
Abstract :
This paper describes an AR system for remote collaboration using a captured 3D model of the local user’s scene. In the system a remote user can manipulate the scene independently of the view of the local user and add AR annotations that appear projected into the real world. Results from a pilot study and the design of a further full study are presented.
Towards Object Based Manipulation in Remote Guidance
Authors:Dulitha Ranatunga, Matt Adcock, David Feng, Bruce Thomas
Abstract :
This paper presents a method for using object based manipulation and spatial augmented reality for the purpose of remote guidance. Previous remote guidance methods have typically not made use of any semantic information about the physical properties of the environment and require the helper and worker to provide context. Our new prototype system introduces a level of abstraction to the remote expert, allowing them to directly specify the object movements required of a local worker. We use 3D tracking to create a hidden virtual reality scene, mirroring the real world, with which the remote expert interacts while viewing a camera feed of the physical workspace. The intended manipulations are then rendered to the local worker using Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR). We report on the implementation of a functional prototype that demonstrates an instance of this approach. We anticipate that techniques such as the one we present will allow more efficient collaborative remote guidance in a range of physical tasks.
Tangible Interaction Techniques To Support Asynchronous Collaboration
Authors:Andrew Irlitti, Stewart Von Itzstein, Leila Alem, Bruce Thomas
Abstract :
Industrial uses of Augmented Reality (AR) are growing, however their uses are consistently fashioned with an emphasis on consumption, delivering additional information to the worker to assist them in the completion of their job. A promising alternative is to allow user data creation during the actual process by the worker performing their duties. This not only allows spatially located annotations to be produced, it also allows an AR scene to be developed in-situ and in real-time. Tangible markers offer a physical interface while also creating physical containers to allow for fluent interactions. This form factor allows both attached and detached annotations, whilst allowing the creation of an AR scene during the process. This annotated scene will allow asynchronous collaboration to be conducted between multiple stakeholders, both locally and remotely. In this paper we discuss our reasoning behind such an approach, and present the current work on our prototype created to test and validate our proposition.
Markerless 3D Gesture-based Interaction for Handheld Augmented Reality Interfaces
Authors:Huidong Bai, Lei Gao, Jihad EL-SANA, Mark Billinghurst
Abstract :
Conventional 2D touch-based interaction methods for handheld Augmented Reality (AR) cannot provide intuitive 3D interaction due to a lack of natural gesture input with real-time depth information. The goal of this research is to develop a natural interaction technique for manipulating virtual objects in 3D space on handheld AR devices. We present a novel method that is based on identifying the positions and movements of the user's fingertips, and mapping these gestures onto corresponding manipulations of the virtual objects in the AR scene. We conducted a user study to evaluate this method by comparing it with a common touch-based interface under different AR scenarios. The results indicate that although our method takes longer time, it is more natural and enjoyable to use.